Subhas Chandra Bose 蘇巴斯·錢德拉·鮑斯


Subhas Chandra Bose (born c. 23 January 1897, Cuttack, Orissa [now Odisha], India – died 18 August 1945, Taipei, Taiwan) was an Indian nationalist whose defiant patriotism made him a hero in India, but whose attempt during World War II to rid India of British rule with the help of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan left a troubled legacy. The honorific Netaji (Hindustani: "Respected Leader"), first applied in early 1942 to Bose in Germany by the Indian soldiers of the Indische Legion and by the German and Indian officials in the Special Bureau for India in Berlin, was later used throughout India.

蘇巴斯·錢德拉·鮑斯(1807年1月23出生於印度奧里薩,現今奧迪薩。1945年8月18日於台北逝世)主張印度民族主義,因激進愛國主義在印度被視為英雄,然而協助德國納粹與日本帝國主義的行為卻飽受爭議。鮑斯的「內塔吉」稱號(印地語指「尊敬的領導」)始於1942年的德國,是印度軍團裡的軍人與柏林印度特別局的德國、印度軍官給予的稱呼,之後才普及於印度各地。


Bose had been a leader of the younger, radical, wing of the Indian National Congress in the late 1920s and 1930s, rising to become Congress President in 1938 and 1939. However, he was ousted from Congress leadership positions in 1939 following differences with Mahatma Gandhi and the Congress high command. He was subsequently placed under house arrest by the British before escaping from India in 1940.

鮑斯在1920和1930年間,是印度國大黨激進、年輕派的領袖人物,1938至1939期間,成為國大黨主席。然而,旋即於1939年,因為和聖雄甘地還有國大黨高層意見不合,被從國大黨領導地位排除,接著又在1940年,被英國人軟禁才潛逃出印度。


Bose arrived in Germany in April 1941, where the leadership offered unexpected, if sometimes ambivalent, sympathy for the cause of India's independence, contrasting starkly with its attitudes towards other colonised peoples and ethnic communities. In November 1941, with German funds, a Free India Centre was set up in Berlin, and soon a Free India Radio, on which Bose broadcast nightly. A 3,000-strong Free India Legion, comprising Indians captured by Erwin Rommel's Afrika Korps, was also formed to aid in a possible future German land invasion of India. By spring 1942, in light of Japanese victories in southeast Asia and changing German priorities, a German invasion of India became untenable, and Bose became keen to move to southeast Asia. Adolf Hitler, during his only meeting with Bose in late May 1942, suggested the same, and offered to arrange for a submarine. During this time Bose also became a father; his wife, or companion, Emilie Schenkl, whom he had met in 1934, gave birth to a baby girl in November 1942. Identifying strongly with the Axis powers, and no longer apologetically, Bose boarded a German submarine in February 1943. In Madagascar, he was transferred to a Japanese submarine from which he disembarked in Japanese-held Sumatra in May 1943.

鮑斯在1941年4月抵達德國,當地領導階層對於印度獨立,出乎意料地,至少有時是展現矛盾態度地,表現支持。這和納粹德國對其他殖民地民組與社群態度有明顯差異。1941年11月,藉由德國資金,自由印度中心在柏林成立,接著自由印度廣播電台也成立了,鮑斯每晚進行廣播。還成立了一個由3000人組成的自由印度軍團,成員包含由隆美爾麾下的德意志非洲軍所俘虜的印度人,為之後入侵印度的可能作準備。到1942年春天,因為日本在東南亞的勝利以及德國優先事項的改變,德國入侵印度變得不太可行,鮑斯則熱衷於遷往東南亞。1942年5月底,在唯一一次的會面中,希特勒提出了同樣的建議,並提出安排潛水艇。在此期間,鮑斯成了父親。他的妻子,者說伴侶埃米莉·申克爾(Emilie Schenkl)和他於1934年相識,並於1942年11月生了一個女嬰。鮑斯強烈認同軸心國的權力,於是不再懷抱歉意,於1943年2月登上了一艘德國潛艇。在馬達加斯加,他被轉移到一艘日本潛艇上,並從而於1943年5月抵達日據蘇門答臘島。


With Japanese support, Bose revamped the Indian National Army (INA), then composed of Indian soldiers of the British Indian army who had been captured in the Battle of Singapore. To these, after Bose's arrival, were added enlisting Indian civilians in Malaya and Singapore. The Japanese had come to support a number of puppet and provisional governments in the captured regions, such as those in Burma, the Philippines and Manchukuo. Before long the Provisional Government of Free India, presided by Bose, was formed in the Japanese-occupied Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Bose had great drive and charisma—creating popular Indian slogans, such as "Jai Hind,"—and the INA under Bose was a model of diversity by region, ethnicity, religion, and even gender. However, Bose was regarded by the Japanese as being militarily unskilled, and his military effort was short-lived. In late 1944 and early 1945, the British Indian Army first halted and then devastatingly reversed the Japanese attack on India. Almost half the Japanese forces and fully half the participating INA contingent were killed. The INA was driven down the Malay Peninsula and surrendered with the recapture of Singapore. Bose had earlier chosen not to surrender with his forces or with the Japanese, but rather to escape to Manchuria with a view to seeking a future in the Soviet Union which he believed to be turning anti-British. He died in National Taiwan University Hospital in Taiwan as a result of third-degree burn injuries from a plane crash. Some Indians, however, did not believe that the crash had occurred, with many among them, especially in Bengal, believing that Bose would return to gain India's independence. A long time after his death, there are still many local legends in India that he is still alive.

在日本的支持下,鮑斯改造了印度國民軍(INA),當時原本由在新加坡之戰中被俘的英屬印度軍隊的印度士兵組成,而鮑斯又在其中加入了在馬來亞和新加坡招募的印度平民。 隨後日本開始支持被佔領地區的一些偽政府和臨時政府,例如緬甸,菲律賓和滿洲國。 不久之後,由鮑斯主持的自由印度臨時政府,在日本佔領的安達曼和尼科巴群島成立。鮑斯具有強大的動力和個人魅力 - 創造了流行的印度口號,例如「印度萬歲」。鮑斯領導下的印度國民軍,是有著地區、種族、宗教甚至性別多樣性的模型。 但是,日本人認為鮑斯沒有軍事能力,因此他的軍事成果僅有短暫壽命。1944年末和1945年初,英屬印度軍隊先是制止,隨即毀滅性地扭轉了日本對印度的進攻。日軍幾乎一半和印度國民軍特遣隊的一半被殺。新加坡被重新佔領後,印度國民軍被驅逐至馬來半島。 鮑斯原先選擇不投誠或和日軍一起投降,而是逃往滿洲國,以期在蘇聯謀求前途,他認為蘇聯正轉趨反英。 他因飛機失事造成的三級灼傷,死於台大醫院。一些印度人不相信墜機事件為真,其中許多人,特別是在孟加拉,認為鮑斯會重回印度獨立運動行列。 他死後很長一段時間,印度當地仍然有許多傳言說他還活著。


The remains were cremated at the Taipei Crematorium, and a ritual was held at Nishi Hongan Temple in Taipei. The remains were transported to Japan and buried at Renguang Temple in Suginami-ku, Tokyo.

鮑斯的遺體在台北火葬場火化,於台北西本願寺舉行了儀式。再被運到日本,並埋葬在東京杉並區的仁光寺。


The Indian National Congress, the main instrument of Indian nationalism, praised Bose's patriotism but distanced itself from his tactics and ideology, especially his collaboration with fascism. The British Raj, though never seriously threatened by the INA, charged 300 INA officers with treason in the INA trials, but eventually backtracked in the face both of popular sentiment and of its own end. Among the three portraits in front of the Indian National Assembly Hall, he is tied with Gandhi and Nehru, which shows his evaluation in India.

印度國民代表大會是印度民族主義的主要媒介,讚揚鮑斯的愛國主義同時,也對鮑斯的策略和意識形態劃清界線,尤其是鮑斯與法西斯主義的合作。 英國統治階層,雖然從未受到印度國民軍的嚴重威脅,在對印度國民軍的審判中仍指控300名軍官叛國罪,但最終由於民眾情緒反應及其自身目的撤回。 在印度國民大會議堂前的三幅肖像中,他與甘地和尼赫魯並列,展現出印度對他的評價。

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